# black-scholes-merton

1. ### P2.T5.23.2. Multi-period interest rate trees

Learning objectives: Explain how the principles of arbitrage pricing of derivatives on fixed-income securities can be extended over multiple periods. Define option-adjusted spread (OAS) and apply it to security pricing. Describe the rationale behind the use of recombining trees in option...
2. ### Determination of N(d1) and N(d2)

Hi everyone! I have a question related to the BSM model. When we calculate N(d1) and N(d2), we’re using cumulative normal table(Z-table). but in this example it states that d1 = 0.1783 -> N(d1) = 0.5708 and d2 = 0.03688 -> N(d2) = 0.5147. Can someone explain why the results are different from...
3. ### Probability of default under Merton

The Black-Scholes option pricing formula has d1=ln(S/K)+.... Yet, the Stulz reading and in the notes, has "BSM risk-neutral d2 is: d2=ln (S/K...) (p.8 of the notes). Should be not d1 and I understand replacing the risk-free for the mean drift. Trying to understand why we move from d1 to d2 by...
4. ### YouTube T4-12: How to interpret N(d1) and N(d2) in Black Scholes Merton

N(d1) is the option's delta and N(d2) is the probability that a call option will be exercised; that is, N(d2) is the probability that S(T) will be greater than K. David's XLS is here: https://trtl.bz/2E8qsmw
5. ### YouTube T4-11: Black Scholes Merton option pricing model

David gives a brief tour of a Black Scholes option pricing model. He highlights three of the questions that we get about this famous model. 1. How are dividends exactly treated? 2. Can we interperet N(d1) and N(d2)? 3. Is there any way to get an intuition about how this Black Scholes works short...
6. ### P1.T4.816. Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) for dividend-paying stocks and the early exercise decision for American-style options (Hull Ch.15)

Learning objectives: Explain how dividends affect the decision to exercise early for American call and put options. Compute the value of a European option using the Black-Scholes-Merton model on a dividend-paying stock. Questions: 816.1. Brian is a Risk Analyst who is using the...
7. ### P1.T4.814. The lognormal property of stock prices and the assumptions of Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) (Hull Ch.15)

Learning objectives: Explain the lognormal property of stock prices, the distribution of rates of return, and the calculation of expected return. Compute the realized return and historical volatility of a stock. Describe the assumptions underlying the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model...